Angular Architecture MVC – A Detailed Look!

Before we dig deep into Angular Architecture, First we should discuss what is Angular. AngularJS is a powerful JavaScript framework that helps you build well-structured, dynamic web applications. It provides a comprehensive set of features that makes it easy to develop complex applications quickly. Fundamentally, AngularJS follows the Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern, which helps structure and organize code more efficiently.

In this blog post, we will take a closer look at the architecture of AngularJS and learn how its components work together to create an efficient and scalable development platform. We will also discuss some best practices for using AngularJS in your projects.

So, if you are interested in learning more about AngularJS or thinking about using it in your next project, this blog post is for you!

 

The Angular Architecture – What is MVC?

AngularJS follows the Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern. This pattern helps structure and organize code in a more efficient way, which makes it easier to maintain and extend your applications.

The MVC pattern is implemented in JavaScript and HTML. More specifically, the model and the controller are implemented in JavaScript whereas the model is defined in HTML.

In AngularJS, MVC is implemented as three separate modules:

angular architectureThe Model:

<script>

$scope.person = {
                  ‘Name’:  ‘Ram Kumar’,
                  ‘Address’: ‘AB Road, Katni’
            }
</script>

It is the lowest level of AngularJS architecture. This module holds the data that has to be displayed. It collects the data that the user inputs into any input fields or forms. At the same time, it has functions that are called based on user activities, such as clicking a button or making changes to the model data.

AngularJS presents a rich declarative data binding experience. That means elements in the view can have their value bound to the model. Because the binding in AngularJS is two-way, the value can be changed by the view or in the model.

It contains classes representing data objects and services that provide functionality for working with that data. The model can update itself based on the instructions received from the controller.

The View:

<h1> {{ person.Name }} </h1>

This module defines the user interface for your application. In simple words, it is the presentation layer of the architecture that displays data to the user. It has the code for the UI pages in HTML. It contains templates and directives that define how the user interface should look and behave.

Depending on the way how users interact with the application, a view sends requests to its respective controller. In return, the controller then regenerates the view as per the response from the server.

 

The Controller:

function address ($scope) {

   // Model Part is written here

}

This module provides the glue between the model and view modules and is the processing brain behind both. It is responsible for either generating or destroying the view and the model.

It holds all the business operations and code logic inside of it. Also, the controller also sends requests to the server and receives a response. It then updates the View and Model based on the response. In a nutshell, the controller controls everything.

You can look at this final code with a model part, view part, and controller part in a single code:

<!doctype html>
<html ng-app>
<head>
            <title>Angular MVC </title>
            <script src=”lib/Angular/angular.min.js”></script>
</head>
<body>
          <div ng-controller=”address”>
                   <h1>{{person.Name}}</h1>
          </div>
          <script type=”text/javascript”>
                   function address ($scope) {
   $scope.person = {
                  ‘Name’:  ‘Ram Kumar’,
                  ‘Address’: ‘AB Road, Katni’
                          }
                   }                            
          </script>
</body>
</html>

MVC in Angular:

angular architecture

 

Now you might be wondering how the above-discussed principles are implemented in AngularJS. Let’s understand:

Scope: It is the model that carries the application data. Scope variables are attached to the DOM, and the variable properties are accessed through bindings.

 

HTML with Data Binding: It is important to remember that the view in AngularJS is not regular HTML; instead, it is a data-bound HTML. Data-binding assists in rendering dynamic data in HTML tags. Consequently, the model often updates the DOM.

 

ngController: The ngController directive is used to attach a controller class to the view. The ngController directive works in tandem with the ng-view directive, which tells AngularJS to insert a new view into the DOM and to activate the controller. The ngController directive creates a new controller context using its template as the template for that context. The ngController directive is in charge of collaborating between model, view, and business logic.

 

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Conceptual Overview

There are some crucial concepts that you should know in order to understand the behavior of AngularJS applications.

Let’s get to know them:

Templates: Along with AngularJS-specific elements and attributes, templates are the HTML elements. When data from the model and the controller combines with the template, dynamicity in AngularJS applications is achieved.

 

Directives: Directives are attributes or elements that represent a reusable DOM component. Directives manipulate the underlying HTML DOM to render the dynamic view. This way, the developer doesn’t have to worry about native HTML elements and attributes.

 

Two Way Data Binding: Through data binding, AngularJS performs the synchronization of data between the model and the view. Consider the model as a single source of truth for your application data. The view is a projection of the model every time. As soon as the model changes, the view changes and vice versa. This is what we call two-way binding. It is achieved through the live compilation of the template onto the browser.

 

Routing: As we know, AngularJS applications are single-page applications (SPA), so a lot of focus is placed on routing between pages. AngularJS has a robust routing mechanism that does URL matching from the list of routes specified in the router associated with the component. This works in a way that when a browser requests a URL, an associated child component is rendered instead of a whole page.

 

Services: A controller is joined with a view. This means that it is good to write only that code inside the controller, which is logically useful for its view. The view independent logic can be moved elsewhere so that it can be re-used by other controllers as well.

 

Dependency Injection: Once we move view-independent logic to a shared location, how do we control the permissions to access the shared services? This is where the Dependency Injection (DI) steps in. Dependency Injection is a software design pattern that deals with how objects are created and how they get hold of their dependencies. Everything in AngularJS, from directives to controllers to services and pretty much everything, is wired through Dependency injections.

 

Conclusion

This is how MVC architecture works in angular. The various aspects of an application are divided into three components (Model, View, and Controller) to separate responsibilities. A model contains application data, a view contains the visual layout, and a controller connects the view part and model part.

Furthermore, please feel free to ask in the comment box if you have any queries or reach out to the team of expert developers for your next project.

 

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